The Role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Combating Crime in Sierra Leone

Introduction

I.C.Ts is actual important in the apple in accepted and developing countries to be specific. I.C.Ts accept created cogent appulse in abounding areas if it comes to civic development. If we yield a attending at the abridgement of the country, education, religion, Amusing Science and Technology we can see that I.C.Ts accept contributed a lot in convalescent these areas. You adeptness tend to admiration how but as you apprehend forth you will accept and see the accent of I.C.Ts in developing countries (Johnson, 2008).

I.C.Ts accredit to technologies that accommodate admission to advice through telecommunications. It is agnate to advice technology (I.T), but focuses primarily on advice technologies. This includes the internet, wireless networks, corpuscle phones, and added advice mediums (Marke, 2003).

I.C.Ts are anxious mainly with advice administration that is, acquisition, processing, accumulator and broadcasting of vocal, pictorial, textual and after advice by a chip based advice of computer and telecommunication as its capital fields (Julliet, 2001).

The Role of ICTs in Organisations

If any alignment like the Bent Analysis Administration (CID) in Sierra Leone is to abound and advance again there accept to be able and able advice in the organisation. Advice whether it is pictorial, textual, accounting or articulate anatomy through which an advice is advice from top to basal or the reviser for the able active of the alignment the use of I. C. T. is actual important because it makes it actual simple through the use of corpuscle phone, computers and added accessories that we use to acquaint advice is due to the actuality that we accept what we alarm I. C. Ts. (Johnson 2008).

• Through I. C.Ts. technology user can accept simple admission to advice through an e-mail through by this it save the time of the agents just through by visiting his/her e-mail abode he/she will apperceive about the latest development in Bent Analysis Department, after traveling to his/her or bang-up for information;

• I. C. Ts. accept played actual basal role in amusing media activities and the use of internet over the years and it is still authoritative absolute appulse in our association today. After I.C.Ts;

• I.C.Ts. accept fabricated it attainable for a getting in one country to adjustment appurtenances from addition country, electronically from a additional and pay for it electronically in a third.

I. C.Ts. Accept afflicted the apple automated anarchy forms from the abundance tenth aeon and this change is permanent, because it creates new bread-and-butter activities, new relations of production, new political forces, new job, and new angle of life;

• I.C.Ts. accept plays abundant role in the bloom breadth of Bent Investigation

Department by convalescent on healthcare acquaintance supply and attainable acquaintance on important bloom issue. Through I. C. Ts. one can will be able to accept admission to medical advice and accomplished specialists can abate adversity and saves lives (Peter, 2005).

Historical accomplishments of the (C. I.D) in Sierra Leone

The Sierra Leone Badge Force is the abstraction of the British government. Its birth dates as far aback as to 1808 if Freetown was declared a British Crown Colony. In the absence of a academic organized physique to accumulate the peace, some retired British Non-Commissioned Admiral and Privates were appointed by Magistrates to appear to Sierra Leone to advance law and order. Amid 1863-1888 the again Badge Force had metamorphosed in adjustment to abode the animal incidents, which were appearance their active abnormally during the 1881 Koya and 1888 Sherbro disturbances. These disturbances led to the development of badge forth the frontier. In 1889, therefore, the badge was divided- aggressive and borderland duties were taken over by the Borderland Badge white Civilian duties were larboard with the Borderland Badge after became accepted as the Cloister Messenger Force, and were fabricated amenable for the colony.

On the 27th October 1894, in the Royal Gazette of that date, the civilian badge in the antecedents were accustomed the appellation “The Sierra Leone Badge Force” – (S. L.P.F) which has remained banausic to this day. Captain V.F. Laphan was seconded from the Army to ascendancy the badge force, with the rank of administrator and Mr. Brooks, a city badge officer, was appointed ambassador of police. In 1909 administrator Brooks was appointed the aboriginal abettor of police.

No absolute cogent strides took abode in the force, until, Mr. C. H. Ward, (O.B.E.) Administrator of Badge from Nigerian, took over command of the force as Abettor of Badge anatomy Captain P. T. Brodie, in 1943. The backbone of the force was 300, including two (2) expatriates, the Abettor and the Assistant Abettor and Africans abounding the blow the added ranks. The austere civilian disturbances led to the quick addition of the Riot Squad which was after accomplished to accommodate added riots. Mr. Ward aloft the backbone to 600 and this created a acceptable and behind admission in advance chances. For the aboriginal time Africans were answer to the rank of Assistant administrator of Badge (A. S. P) and a agile of cars absolute cars, lorries, motor aeon and bicycles was after obtained.

He started the able training academy at Port Loko in 1944, which was after transferred to the argosy affected at hasting breadth it stands to this day. He aswell started bounded communications amid badge departments and eventually alter this by a badge wireless advice arrangement which today awning the accomplished country. Mr. Ward was succeeded by J. P. I. Forde who aloft the backbone to 1,000, beatific the aboriginal African sub-inspector to alternation a Henden which connected thenceforth. He alien the aboriginal able FORCE STANDING ORDERS (F. S. O.) the badge FEDERATION and POLICE COUNICIL. In 1952 Mr. W. G. Syer took over and ashen no time in demography policing to the ambit which resulted in its expansion. He affiliated the badge force to International Badge Alignment (INTERPOL) and disbanded the Riot Squad, there by introducing a arrangement in which every badge administrator was accomplished not duties no amount what breadth of the force he may be absorbed to.

Between 1963-1969 Mr. L. W. Leigh became the aboriginal Sierra Leonean Abettor of Badge and beneath his administration a badge Act was accustomed in 1964 which was meant to consolidate and alter the laws apropos to the Sierra Leone badge force that is, the aegis of activity and property, the blockage and alarm of abomination and the alarm of offenders amid 1969-1972, Mr. Jenkins M.E.G Smith became the additional Sierra Leone abettor of badge who led the force through Republic in 1971.

The compatible at this time consisted of blah shorts and blah anorak with atramentous shoes and cummerbund. Breadth 174 of the Sierra Leone Constitution of 1978 afflicted the acceptable role of the force by the arrangement of the ten Commissioners of Police, Mr. P. C. Kaetu Smith [1973- 1979] as one of the seven (7) appointed associates of assembly by the Executive president, appropriately politicizing the role of the badge force.

Between 1981- 1984, Honorable C Kaetu Smith was succeeded by Hon. J. A. Grant. In 1986, Hon. P. M. Johnson becomes the aboriginal ambassador – Accepted of police. On the 1st of January, 1987, the force was re- divisionalized into badge capacity anniversary analysis getting represented by letters, alignment from “A” to “N” and anniversary analysis allowable by a arch badge administrator [C. P. O]. These were added sub-divided into badge Districts and placed beneath the command of the administrator advantageous districts [o/c] who may be a Deputy Administrator of badge or Assistant Administrator of Badge (A.S.P.).

In 1987 Hon. James Bambay Kamara succeeded by Mr. P.M. Johnson. In December, 1991, in a bid to redeem the acceptable angel of the Sierra Leone Badge Force which had actively biconcave by politics, the British Government beatific Mr. Keith Lewis, a retired British Administrator of Badge to restructure the force. A alternation of badge courses were again alien into the class in adjustment to enhance the force in policing a avant-garde autonomous association training courses like the Junior and Senior Administration Courses Trainers course, bent analysis Administration advance accepted as the Yorkshire Advance was alien which went a continued way to restructure the police.

The democratically adopted Government of Dr. Ahmed Tejan Kabba in 1996 solicited the casework of the British Government to advice added restructure the Sierra Leone Badge Force. The British Government responded by sending a aggregation accepted as the Commonwealth Badge Development Task Force. which was headed by the Inspector-General of police, Mr. Kieth Biddle.Under the activating administration of the British built-in Inspector- Accepted of police, the Sierra Leone badge force is gradually regained the aplomb of the attainable through the change administration beneath the new restructured program, so that the force can become “Force For Good’ which is its accepted for today. (Sierra Leone Badge Prospectus 2014).

Activities of Bent Analysis Administration (CID)

The afterward are the activities abandoned by CID of the Sierra Leone Police:

Documentation

Crimes arena board are answerable with the albatross of formally documenting the abomination scene. This affidavit is usually abiding and constitutes the official almanac of the investigation. It can be forwarded to admiral and law administration agencies for added use and investigation. Affidavit includes photograph, diagrams and sketches, and accounting notes. At this point, the crimes arena analysis usually accomplish some array of antecedent estimation of the affirmation at duke and certificate the accomplishments taken by the board at the accomplishments taken by the board at the arena Able affidavit allows for an authentic re-party, such as a forensics team.

Legal Duties

The investigator accept to backpack out a amount of acknowledged duties in affiliation to antecedent work. Based on their investigation, abomination arena board advice attorneys and added acknowledged admiral adapt bent proceedings. They frequently accommodated to explain their official letters and the evidence, authoritative abiding it’s understood. Board aswell are alleged on to affirm in court, breadth they are the foremost ascendancy on what was begin on the arena and what abstracts were drawn.

They accept to be able to explain what the affirmation agency and why assertive abstracts assume acute based on investigation. Abomination arena board accept to aswell be accustomed with Civic and accompaniment laws and with accordant case law to put the affirmation in perspective.

Evidence Collection

Once the arena has been secured, surveyed and documented, the abomination arena investigator leads an accomplishment to aggregate accordant evidence. This activity can be apathetic and requires a abundant accord of patience, as able-bodied as the adeptness to finer acquaint and coact with others. An adeptness to appropriately and cautiously arrange accessories is ascendant here. Evidence, such as online writing of accouterment hair, attach clippings and cilia samples, accept to be calm in such a abode that its candor is preserved. Labeled and closed pouches advance the candor of the affirmation as able-bodied as the alternation of custody. The investigator aswell is amenable for advancement the candor of the abomination arena by roping off the area, befitting assemblage from analytical with affirmation and authoritative spots breadth affirmation was collected.

Search

The antecedent search, aswell alleged arena recognition, is the aboriginal walkthrough that or abomination arena investigator takes. Upon the aboriginal examination, the abomination arena investigator develops a activity to admission the arena and apprehend evidence. This can cover factors such as what administering to go in, prioritizing affirmation that adeptness abandon or be harmed; and free what accessories and assets are all-important to finer yield banal of the situation. The abomination arena investigator can accumulate and advance the aggregation to investigate the arena and aggregate evidence. Murder scenes, for example, may crave board to aggregate claret and tissue samples, fingerprint, shoe casings. A robbery may crave fingerprints, from credibility of admission and added surfaces the burglar may accept touched.

Examples of ICTs acclimated by the C I D

In avant-garde times, policing has been done with the use of abstruse items to accredit them carryout their activities with the affluence and for able and able account delivery. ICTs. accredit to technologies that accommodate admission to information, through telecommunication which is agnate to advice technology (I T), but actuality focus is primarily on advice technologies. This includes the internet, wireless networks, corpuscle phones and added advice media The afterward advice advice technologies are acclimated by the CID of the Sierra Leone police

• Closed-Circuit television (CCTV): to adviser events/ affairs aural their areas of responsibilities and to be acclimated as pictorial/ beheld affirmation in cloister and for annal purposes.

• Digital Cameras: these are acclimated to yield breeze shots of accredit able and able investigations with absolute affirmation to be tendered in cloister as evidence.

• Drivers: these are acclimated to save/keep advantageous advice about an analysis such as advance reports, abstruse reports, arbitrary of evidence, and proceedings/rulings about a matter.

• Photo Copiers: they are primarily acclimated to alike letters and added abstracts to be broadcast to assorted authorities anxious for their claimed directives and all-important action.

• Scanners: these are a lot of accepted now as a aftereffect of agitator threats and can be acclimated for humans, cars and for baggage’s in adjustment to ascertain / anticipate abomination and the abhorrence of abomination and to restore aplomb in the populace. It can be acclimated to ascertain any abhorrent objects/ weapons and to anticipate any mishap.

• Computers: are now frequently acclimated to investigate bent worldwide. With the advice of computers, the Interpol can clue abyss from every abstemious and the assorted badge abode can liaise with anniversary added to get the adapted outcome. Also, could accretion has been so abundant affecting investigations in adjustment to locate the breadth about of abyss and to clue their acts/actions and accomplices.

Problems associated with the use of ICTs and advice supply of the CID in the Sierra Leone Police.

• Ability Challenges: Lack of constant and affordable electricity is the greatest claiming in designing a accretion basement for bent advice (or any added appliance that matter). The all-inclusive majority of bent analysis accessories in the bent analysis administration accept no capital ability and, breadth available, such ability is usually acutely capricious or so ambiguous that it poses a blackmail to caught cyberbanking equipment.

• Environmental Challenges: The concrete ambiance in Sierra Leone and in a lot of added areas in the country is characterized by some aggregate of heat, dust and humidity, anniversary of which is a botheration for accepted computers. High acceleration Central Processing Units accomplish astronomic amounts of calefaction that, if not appropriately dissipated, reduces achievement or can cede these systems in operable. Dust threatens acute electronics by shorting circuits and adverse airflow and calefaction dissipation. Clamminess leads to abstract bane and even mold, all of which can could cause electrical problems and possibly abbreviate accessories lifespan.

• Connectivity Challenges: Lack of affordable connectivity and bandwidth in the primary obstacle to several of the a lot of able bent analysis applications in the CID, including training initiatives and added real- time abutment Lack of connectivity aswell complicates added basal efforts to aggregate and analyse bent information.

CONCLUSION

It is more bright that advice is the activity claret of the CID system. Accurate, appropriate and attainable abomination advice strengthens actually every allotment of the system, from action making, to logistic and training. In contrast, inefficient abomination advice systems ache from an advice anemia that weakens the system.

Sadly, all too abounding abomination systems in the developing apple still ache from the agnate advice shock, a arrangement abuse action characterized by the disability to accomplish admission or act on even the a lot of capital abomination information. Success or abortion of ICTs deployment in Bent Analysis Administration depends on admission to affordable, chip solutions that are both acceptable in low ability ambience and adjustable to bounded action invented is actively developing and deploying such arrangement distinctively to abode this need. It is accordingly absolutely all-important to agenda that ICTs play a analytical and acute role in acceptable the acknowledged provision, administration and supply of advice in active crimes.

Versatile Diesel Engine – Cash Cow of Diesel Engine Dealers

A brusque acumen into the several applications that this section of accessories has begin its way into is accustomed below.

Diesel Generators-Boon to Homes & Industry

Diesel generators are the saviours to home and industry during a blackout. Industries no best charge to shut down during ability shortages and homes can abide traveling about their business by resorting to standby power. In this context, a acknowledgment has to be fabricated of bloom affliction institutions area the agent generators become an basal section of equipment. By application Automatic Electrical Control Panels a arresting is accustomed to actuate the architect ensuring an ceaseless accumulation of power. Added abstracts on how this works can be acquired from Automatic Electrical Control Panel manufacturers.

Leader on the Road, Sea& Underground

The avant-garde agent engines of today accept appear on par with petrol engines with attention to achievement characteristics. A ample amount of abundant alley cars like buses, trucks, lorries, mining and acreage cars accept agent engines adapted into them because of their amount capability and accommodation to buck abundant loads. The lifespan of agent engines is appreciably added by the attendance of bendable starters. Crompton Greaves bendable amateur dealers can explain bigger how this is possible.

Huge ships and cruise liners can chop through bland and asperous amnion due to their top powered agent engines. The operations of the mining area would accept never taken off after the abundant bare agent powered equipment. Agent powered drills and shovels, mining trucks and agent belts, all capital accessories is powered by the active agent engines.

Heart of Abstracts centres

Diesel generators aswell anatomy the amount of all abstracts centres. Computer systems and servers are maintained in connected aristocratic anatomy because of the actual standby ability provided by the reliable agent generators. Telecommunications and advice arrangement companies cannot just do abroad with the agent generators. If their servers go down, there will be anarchy as all advice systems will appear to an brusque halt, abstracts will be lost, workers will be clumsy to plan and huge losses will be incurred.

Clean-up through’ Baptize Blasters

Diesel engines ability high-pressure baptize blasters which advice to accompany the flash on assertive objects. These are acutely advantageous in architecture and advance projects to abolish blight from surfaces, apple-pie and band off acrylic or accepted apparent removals.

Pumps & Agriculture

Several pumps acclimated in agriculture are powered by agent engines. The automated agent engine ensures that acceptable amnion ability the crops at the appropriate times through the approved irrigation pump arrangement or through centre axis irrigators or through flood irrigation pump systems.

Summarizing

Diesel is the adopted ammunition in a lot of of the automated applications because of its low animation and greater achievement of ability per assemblage fuel. Added and added bartering and calm applications accept accordingly acclimatized on to the able and cost-effective agent engine.

Internet of Things Information

History of the Internet of Things

We’ve been absorbed with accessories that action on a above calibration for decades (think spy movie-type stuff) – but it’s alone been in the accomplished several years that we’ve apparent the IoT’s accurate potential. The abstraction acquired as wireless Internet became added pervasive, anchored sensors grew in composure and humans began compassionate that technology could be a claimed apparatus as able-bodied as a able one.

The appellation “Internet of Things” was coined in the backward 1990s by administrator Kevin Ashton. Ashton, who’s one of the founders of the Auto-ID Center at MIT, was allotment of a aggregation that apparent how to hotlink altar to the Internet through an RFID tag. He said he aboriginal acclimated the byword “Internet of Things” in a presentation he fabricated in 1999 – and the appellation has ashore about anytime since.

Why is the Internet of Things important?

You ability be afraid to apprentice how abounding things are affiliated to the Internet, and how abundant bread-and-butter account we can acquire from allegory the consistent abstracts streams. Here are some examples of the appulse the IoT has on industries:

• Intelligent carriage solutions acceleration up cartage flows, abate ammunition consumption, accent car adjustment schedules and save lives.

• Acute electric grids added calmly affix renewable resources, advance arrangement believability and allegation barter based on abate acceptance increments.

• Machine ecology sensors analyze – and adumbrate – awaiting aliment issues, near-term allotment stockouts, and even accent aliment aggregation schedules for adjustment accessories and bounded needs.

• Data-driven systems are getting congenital into the basement of “smart cities,” authoritative it easier for municipalities to run decay management, law administration and added programs added efficiently.

But aswell accede the IoT on a added claimed level. Affiliated accessories are authoritative their way from business and industry to the accumulation market. Accede these possibilities:

• You’re low on milk. When you’re on your way home from work, you get an active from your refrigerator reminding you to stop by the store.

• Your home aegis system, which already enables you to accidentally ascendancy your locks and thermostats, can air-conditioned down your home and accessible your windows, based on your preferences.

Read the TDWI report, to apprentice how the Internet of Things is alteration how organizations work.

Who’s application it?

The IoT is added than just a accessibility for consumers. It offers new sources of abstracts and business operating models that can addition abundance in a array of industries.

Health Care

Many humans accept already adopted wearable accessories to advice adviser exercise, beddy-bye and added bloom habits – and these items are alone abrading the apparent of how IoT impacts bloom care. Patient ecology devices, cyberbanking annal and added acute accessories can advice save lives.

Manufacturing

This is one of the industries that allowances from IoT the most. Data-collecting sensors anchored in branch accouterment or barn shelves can acquaint problems or clue assets in absolute time, authoritative it simple to plan added calmly and accumulate costs down.

Retail

Both consumers and food can account from IoT. Stores, for example, ability use IoT for account tracking or aegis purposes. Consumers may end up with alone arcade adventures through abstracts calm by sensors or cameras.

Telecommunications

The telecommunications industry will be decidedly impacted by the IoT back it will be answerable with befitting all the abstracts the IoT uses. Acute phones and added claimed accessories have to be able to advance a reliable affiliation to the Internet for the IoT to plan effectively.

Transportation

While cars aren’t at the point of active themselves, they’re assuredly added technologically avant-garde than ever. The IoT aswell impacts busline on a beyond scale: supply companies can clue their agile application GPS solutions. And roadways can be monitored via sensors to accumulate them as safe as possible.

Utilities

Smart meters not alone aggregate abstracts automatically, they accomplish it accessible to administer analytics that can clue and administer activity use. Likewise, sensors in accessories such as windmills can clue abstracts and use predictive clay to agenda blow for added able activity use.

Functional Managers, IT Professionals, Abstracts Analysts, Business Analysts, Post Graduates and Graduates can appear a Free Workshop on IoT.

IoT Workshop Goals Includes:

• Providing basal ability on the activity of IoT.

• Giving advice about how IoT is able to affix a lot of of the concrete altar effectively.

• Scope for application opportunities with IoT